Master Machine Learning with Keras in Python 3: Your Path to Pro Status

training of keras model in Machine Learning | Innovate Yourself

Are you ready to take your Python skills to the next level and become a machine learning pro? If so, you’re in the right place! In this guide, we’ll explore the exciting world of machine learning using Keras in Python 3. We’ll cover the fundamentals, provide you with detailed explanations, hands-on examples, and stunning visualizations with sample datasets. Whether you’re 18 or 30, this post will help you embark on a journey toward mastering machine learning.

Why Keras?

Keras is an open-source deep learning library that’s incredibly popular among machine learning enthusiasts. It’s designed to be user-friendly, efficient, and highly extensible. What sets Keras apart is its focus on enabling fast experimentation, making it an excellent choice for both beginners and seasoned professionals.

One of the key reasons to use Keras is its compatibility with Python 3, which is widely adopted for machine learning and data science. So, let’s dive into the world of Keras and Python 3 to kickstart your journey.

Setting up Your Environment

Before we dive into the exciting world of Keras, let’s ensure your environment is properly set up. Here’s what you need:

  • Python 3: Make sure you have Python 3 installed on your machine. If you don’t have it, you can download it from the official Python website.
  • Anaconda (Optional): If you prefer a more comprehensive environment for data science and machine learning, consider using Anaconda, a popular distribution that includes Python and essential libraries.
  • Keras: Install Keras using pip: pip install keras
  • Jupyter Notebook: Jupyter is an excellent tool for interactive coding. Install it using pip: pip install jupyter
  • Data Science Libraries: Install essential libraries like NumPy, Pandas, Matplotlib, and Scikit-Learn. You can install these libraries using pip as well: pip install numpy pandas matplotlib scikit-learn

Now that your environment is set up, let’s get into the real action!

The Basics of Machine Learning

Machine learning is all about training computers to learn from data and make predictions or decisions. It’s divided into three main categories:

  1. Supervised Learning: This type of learning involves training a model using labeled data. The model learns to make predictions based on patterns in the data. For example, predicting house prices based on features like size, location, and number of bedrooms.
  2. Unsupervised Learning: In unsupervised learning, the model is given data without labels, and it must find patterns or structure within the data. Clustering and dimensionality reduction are common tasks in this category.
  3. Reinforcement Learning: Reinforcement learning is about agents making decisions in an environment to achieve specific goals. It’s widely used in robotics, gaming, and autonomous systems.

We’ll focus on supervised learning in this post, as it’s a great starting point for mastering machine learning.

Exploring a Sample Dataset

Let’s begin by working with a sample dataset. We’ll use the classic Iris dataset which contains measurements of various iris flowers. The goal is to classify the iris flowers into three different species based on their features.

Loading the Iris Dataset

In Python, we can easily load the Iris dataset using Scikit-Learn. Here’s a simple code snippet to get you started:

from sklearn.datasets import load_iris

# Load the Iris dataset
iris = load_iris()

# Features and target
X =
y =

This code loads the Iris dataset and separates it into features (X) and the target variable (y).

Understanding the Data

Before we dive into Keras, it’s essential to understand the data. The Iris dataset contains the following features:

  • Sepal Length (cm)
  • Sepal Width (cm)
  • Petal Length (cm)
  • Petal Width (cm)

And the target variable:

  • Species: 0 for Setosa, 1 for Versicolor, and 2 for Virginica

Let’s take a peek at the data:

import pandas as pd

# Create a DataFrame for easy data exploration
iris_df = pd.DataFrame(, columns=iris.feature_names)
iris_df['Species'] =

# Display the first few rows

Here’s a snippet of the dataset:

   sepal length (cm)  sepal width (cm)  petal length (cm)  petal width (cm)  Species
0                5.1               3.5                1.4               0.2        0
1                4.9               3.0                1.4               0.2        0
2                4.7               3.2                1.3               0.2        0
3                4.6               3.1                1.5               0.2        0
4                5.0               3.6                1.4               0.2        0

Now that we have a clear understanding of our dataset, it’s time to move forward and build our machine learning model with Keras.

Building a Simple Neural Network with Keras

Keras makes it easy to build neural networks, whether you’re a beginner or a pro. Let’s start with a simple neural network for our Iris dataset classification task.

Importing Keras

First, we need to import Keras and other necessary components:

from keras.models import Sequential
from keras.layers import Dense

Creating the Model

In Keras, creating a neural network model is straightforward. We start with a Sequential model, which is a linear stack of layers. Then, we add layers to our model.

For our Iris classification task, let’s create a model with one hidden layer:

# Initialize the model
model = Sequential()

# Add a hidden layer with 8 units and specify the input shape (4 features)
model.add(Dense(8, input_shape=(4,), activation='relu'))

# Add the output layer with 3 units (3 species) and softmax activation
model.add(Dense(3, activation='softmax'))

Here’s a breakdown of what we’ve done:

  • We created a Sequential model.
  • We added a hidden layer with 8 units and used the ReLU (Rectified Linear Activation) activation function. The input_shape parameter defines the input dimension, which is 4 for our dataset.
  • We added the output layer with 3 units (corresponding to the 3 species in our dataset) and used the softmax activation function, which is suitable for multiclass classification problems.

Compiling the Model

After building the model, we need to compile it. This involves specifying the optimizer, loss function, and evaluation metric. For our Iris classification, we can use the Adam optimizer, categorical cross-entropy loss, and accuracy as our metric:

# Compile the model

model.compile(optimizer='adam', loss='categorical_crossentropy', metrics=['accuracy'])

Preprocessing the Data

Before we can train the model, we need to preprocess the data. This involves standardizing the feature values and one-hot encoding the target variable.

from sklearn.preprocessing import StandardScaler
from keras.utils import to_categorical

# Standardize feature values
scaler = StandardScaler()
X_scaled = scaler.fit_transform(X)

# One-hot encode the target variable
y_encoded = to_categorical(y)

The StandardScaler is used to standardize the feature values to have a mean of 0 and a standard deviation of 1. This preprocessing step is essential for neural networks to work effectively.

Splitting the Data

Next, we should split our dataset into training and testing sets. This allows us to train the model on one set and evaluate its performance on another set.

from sklearn.model_selection import train_test_split

X_train, X_test, y_train, y_test = train_test_split(X_scaled, y_encoded, test_size=0.2, random_state=42)

In this code, we split our data into 80% for training and 20% for testing. The random_state parameter ensures reproducibility.

Training the Model

Now, it’s time to train the model using our training data:

# Train the model
history =, y_train, epochs=50, batch_size=10, validation_split=0.1)

This code trains the model for 50 epochs with a batch size of 10. We also use a validation split of 10% to monitor the model’s performance during training.

  • training of keras model in Machine Learning | Innovate Yourself
  • training of keras model in Machine Learning | Innovate Yourself
  • training of keras model in Machine Learning | Innovate Yourself

Evaluating the Model

After training, it’s crucial to evaluate the model’s performance on the test data:

# Evaluate the model
loss, accuracy = model.evaluate(X_test, y_test)
print(f'Test loss: {loss:.4f}, Test accuracy: {accuracy:.4f}')
Test loss: 0.3493, Test accuracy: 0.9333
1/1 [==============================] - 0s 44ms/step

The code above prints the test loss and accuracy, which are essential metrics for assessing your model’s performance.

Visualizing Results

Now that we have our model up and running, it’s time to visualize the results. We can use Matplotlib to create visualizations that help us understand how our model is performing.

Learning Curves

Let’s start by visualizing the training and validation loss over the epochs. This will give us insight into how well our model is learning.

import matplotlib.pyplot as plt

# Plot training & validation loss values
plt.figure(figsize=(10, 6))
plt.title('Model loss')
plt.legend(['Train', 'Validation'], loc='upper right')
loss vs epochs plot in keras model in Machine Learning | Innovate Yourself

This plot shows the training and validation loss over the 50 epochs. We want to see the loss decreasing for both, which indicates that our model is learning effectively.

Confusion Matrix

To further evaluate our model’s performance, let’s create a confusion matrix to visualize how well it’s classifying the iris species.

from sklearn.metrics import confusion_matrix
import seaborn as sns

# Predict species for the test data
y_pred = model.predict(X_test)

# Get the class with the highest probability as the predicted class
y_pred_classes = [np.argmax(y) for y in y_pred]
y_true_classes = [np.argmax(y) for y in y_test]

# Create a confusion matrix
confusion_mtx = confusion_matrix(y_true_classes, y_pred_classes)

# Plot the confusion matrix
plt.figure(figsize=(8, 6))
sns.heatmap(confusion_mtx, annot=True, fmt='d', cmap='Blues')
plt.title('Confusion Matrix')

The confusion matrix visually represents how many samples were correctly or incorrectly classified by our model.

Going Beyond

Congratulations! You’ve just built and evaluated a simple neural network using Keras in Python 3. But this is just the beginning of your journey into machine learning. To become a pro in Python and machine learning, consider the following steps:

  1. Experiment with Different Models: Try building more complex neural networks and explore different architectures. Experimentation is key to learning.
  2. Feature Engineering: Learn how to extract valuable features from your data. Feature engineering can greatly improve model performance.
  3. Hyperparameter Tuning: Fine-tune your model by optimizing hyperparameters. Tools like GridSearchCV in Scikit-Learn can be immensely helpful.
  4. Deep Learning: Dive into deep learning with convolutional neural networks (CNNs) for image data or recurrent neural networks (RNNs) for sequential data.
  5. Real-World Projects: Work on real-world projects to apply your skills. You could explore image classification, natural language processing, or recommendation systems.


You’ve taken the first step toward becoming a machine learning pro with Python and Keras. You’ve learned how to set up your environment, work with a sample dataset, build a neural network, evaluate its performance, and visualize the results.

Remember, mastering machine learning takes time and practice. Keep experimenting, learning, and applying your knowledge to real-world problems. With dedication and the right resources, you’ll soon be a pro in Python and machine learning.

So, are you ready to take on more challenges in the fascinating world of machine learning? Your journey has just begun!

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